1 National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. What causes Pneumonia? http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/pnu/causes. Updated March 2011. Accessed March 23, 2017.
2 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pneumococcal Disease: Risk Factors & Transmission. http://www.cdc.gov/pneumococcal/about/risk-transmission.html. Updated June 6, 2013. Accessed March 23, 2017.
3 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Pneumococcal Disease: Symptoms & Complications. http://www.cdc.gov/pneumococcal/about/symptoms-complications.html. Updated June 6. 2013. Accessed March 23, 2017.
4 Mandell G, Bennett J, Dolin R. Mandell, Douglas and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th Edition. Streptococcus Pneumoniae. 2623-2642.
5 Weinberger B, Herndler-Brandstetter D, Schwanninger A, et al. Biology of immune responses to vaccines in elderly persons. Clin Infect Dis. 2008; 46:1078-1084.
6 Center for Disease Control and Prevention Fast Facts. (2015). http://www.cdc.gov/pneumococcal/about/facts.html. Accessed March 23, 2017.
7 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). April 2015. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. http://www.ahrq.gov/research/data/hcup/index.html.
8 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. The Pink Book: Course Textbook. 13th edition. Washington, DC. 2015.
9 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Adult Vaccination Resources. Resources for Adult Vaccination Insurance and Payment. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/patient-ed/adults/for-practice/insurance-payment.html. Updated March 3, 2014. Accessed March 22, 2017.
10 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. MMWR. Adult Vaccination Coverage — United States, 2011, http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm6204a2.htm. Updated February 1, 2013. Accessed March 23, 2017.
11 Omnibus survey, sponsored by Pfizer. September 8-12, 2016.